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9 мес. 4 нед. назад #357 от VivianPag
VivianPag ответил в теме Sleep in chronic pain
Sleep in chronic pain
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п»ї<title>Sleep in chronic pain</title>

Chronic pain affects almost 25% of the Spanish population. In a study of 5000 people, 43% of those surveyed reported having suffered pain in the last week, especially in the legs, back or head. Of these, 54 % reported long-lasting chronic discomfort, which has a significant impact on their lives.
The most common causes of chronic pain are arthritis, rheumatism and migraines. To combat this, more than 60 % of patients take painkillers. This measure has numerous side effects when the drugs are taken over the long term, including new pathologies that further aggravate the discomfort of those affected.
How does chronic pain affect patients? Suffering from chronic affliction significantly diminishes the quality of life. The fact that the discomfort is daily generates, in addition to the physical pain itself, an important psychological discomfort. Some of the areas most affected by chronic pain are the following:
Sleep quality.
Social life.
Cognitive capacity.
Physical activity.
Work performance.
Various daily activities (grooming, shopping, cooking, driving, writing, etc.).
Increased predisposition to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression.
All of this means a very important stress for the patient; unfortunately, on many occasions, pain sustained over time ends up generating chronic stress.
Sleep quality in the chronic pain patient
The quality of sleep is considered a fundamental variable in assessing whether a treatment for chronic pain is satisfactory or not. About 50-70% of patients with moderate to severe distress suffer from some type of sleep disorder. This is especially true in older patients. The most frequent disorders are the following:
Difficulty falling asleep.
Nocturnal awakening due to pain.
Unrefreshing sleep.
Daytime sleepiness.
In these patients the pain generates a bad rest. As a consequence, hyperalgesia is produced, that is to say, a greater perception of pain. Feeling more pain leads to worse rest, so that the situation feeds back on itself and the patient is particularly affected.
Effect of analgesic medication on sleepThe drugs administered for the treatment of chronic pain improve the symptoms, but affect the quality of the patient's sleep. Among the most common are the following:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugsNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, also known as NSAIDs, are some of the most commonly used pain relievers in adults. They not only decrease inflammation, but also reduce fever, swelling and redness. They are prescribed to treat chronic health problems such as arthritis or lupus.
How they affect sleep: NSAIDs reduce the effectiveness of sleep and increase the number of nighttime awakenings. This is due to three main possible causes:
Decreased prostaglandin synthesis.
Interference with melatonin release.
Gastric irritation due to chronic ingestion.
OpioidsOpioid analgesics are safe when they follow the doctor's instructions and are taken for a limited period of time. Their regular consumption can cause dependence and, if inappropriately ingested, can lead to overdose and even death. For this reason, they are prescribed with great caution by physicians.
How they affect sleep: they decrease REM sleep and slow wave sleep, both of which are essential for the proper physiological development of sleep cycles.
CorticosteroidsCorticosteroids are drugs that are prescribed mainly to reduce inflammation in diseases such as arthritis, asthma, lupus, multiple sclerosis or some types of cancer.
Their continued use can produce different side effects, such as weakening the bones or causing cataracts. For this reason, they are usually prescribed for short periods of time.
How do they affect sleep? At high doses, they work in the same way as opioids: they reduce rapid eye movements and slow-wave sleep.
Conclusions on chronic pain and sleep
The scientific literature associates a direct relationship between chronic pain and sleep disorders. Pain often makes it difficult to rest and not sleeping adequately increases the perception of pain.
It is important to consider that structural changes in sleep are multifactorial. Age plays a very important role, as well as the type of pain medication. However, other variables should not be ruled out, such as other concomitant pathologies or external circumstances that impair night rest and increase the sensation of pain.
When prescribing analgesic treatment for chronic pain, it is recommended to substitute rapid-release formulations for delayed-release formulations. Studies show that this type of drug reduces the occurrence of sleep disorders associated with analgesic medication.
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8 мес. 1 день назад #358 от Juliakib
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8 мес. 1 день назад #359 от Juliakib
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8 мес. 20 ч. назад #360 от Juliakib
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7 мес. 4 нед. назад #361 от Juliakib
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7 мес. 4 нед. назад #362 от DJFlashNox
DJFlashNox ответил в теме Private 0DAY music
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